中華人民共和國政府和緬甸聯邦政府關於兩國邊界的議定書

中華人民共和國和緬甸聯邦邊界條約 中華人民共和國政府和緬甸聯邦政府關於兩國邊界的議定書
中華人民共和國外交部、緬甸聯邦外交部
1961年10月13日
(1961年10月13日中華人民共和國外交部與緬甸聯邦外交部簽署)[1]

中華人民共和國政府和緬甸聯邦政府。

考慮到中緬邊界聯合委員會按照1960年10月1日中緬邊界條約的規定,成功地完成了勘察兩國邊界線、勾畫邊界標誌的任務,明確界定了兩國的邊界線,

深信這將有助於進一步鞏固兩國在和平共處五項原則基礎上建立的和平友好的邊界,

按照《中緬邊界條約》第十條,簽署了本議定書。

第一部分 總則 編輯

第1條。 - 中國與緬甸之間的邊界線,除正在等待最終決定的西部邊界之外,已經按照中緬邊界條約第七條的規定進行了現場調查和標定。在本議定書中比在「條約」中更詳細地描述了由雙方調查和劃定的邊界線的一致性。此後,兩國邊界線的具體銜接應符合本議定書的規定。

第2條。 - 按照「中緬邊界條約」第七條的規定,邊界要沿分水嶺行進,以流域山脊為界線。在邊界的一些特定區域,雙方特別劃定了邊界線,適當考慮到兩國地形的實際特點和行政管轄權。

第3條。 - 根據「中緬邊界條約」第七條的規定,在邊界按照河道劃分的邊界部分地區,雙方明確劃定了邊界考慮到兩國行政管轄的便利性和地形的實際特點。

第4條。 - 中緬邊界河流現在被認為是不能通航的河流,邊界應按照「中緬邊界條約」第八條規定的中游線路進行。這樣的中游線由河的平均高水位決定。

第5條。 - 位於中游線中國邊界河流的島嶼和沙洲屬於中國,位於中游線緬甸一側的島嶼和沙洲屬於緬甸。中游線相交的島嶼和沙壩的所有權,是在公平合理的基礎上相互協商確定的。

在邊界河流出現新的島嶼和沙壩的情況下,根據它們相對於中游線的位置分別屬於中國或緬甸。中游線相交的新島和沙壩的所有權,由雙方在公平合理的基礎上相互協商確定。

第6條。 - 雙方沿兩國邊界劃定的界標,從尖高山向北,向南依次編號。尖高山是南北段的共同起點,而尖高山脈北側的編號為1至47,南臘河至瀾滄江(湄公河)交界處南側至東南端的編號為1至244。

每個連續編號的界標可以由單立、雙立或三立界標組成。指導建立單立、雙立或三立界標的原則是:

(1)凡在陸地邊界線上設置界標的地方,只能建立一顆界樁。
(2)在陸上劃定的邊界線遇到邊界河流,或沿邊界河流的邊界線離開河流到達陸地的任何地方,可以在與其相交的岸上豎立一顆界樁,也可以在相交線的河兩岸各豎立一顆標有相同序號的界樁。
(3)界標位於河流邊界線上的任何地方,可以在界河兩岸豎立標有相同編號的界樁,在每邊河岸上各一顆界樁。
(4)界標位於邊界河流與非邊界河流交匯處的任何地方,可以在界河兩岸豎立標有相同編號的界樁,在每邊河岸上各一顆界樁。
(5)邊界標誌位於兩條邊界河流交匯處的,可在河流交匯處的每一岸上豎立三顆同一編號的界樁。然而,在某些情況下,只能豎立兩顆標有相同序號的界樁,分別位於其中一條界河的兩岸上。

...

第42條。 - 締約方應儘可能防止邊界河流改變流向。任何一方都不得故意改變邊界河流的走向。

為防止邊界河流改道,締約雙方可共同採取其認為必要的措施;任何一方也可以在不影響另一方的利益的情況下,在通知另一方後分別在本國領土採取類似措施;但是如果另一方遭受任何損失,則應作出適當的賠償。

邊界河流改道的,雙方應當共同採取必要措施,或者在雙方協商後,另行協商,使邊界河流恢復原狀。

如果邊界河流由於自然原因不能恢復到原來的路線,根據「中國與緬甸邊界條約」第八條的規定,如雙方沒有其它協定,這一部分邊界應保持不變。

第43條。 - 締約各方應根據案情的嚴重性,對故意拆除,損壞,毀壞邊界標識物或故意改變邊界線的行為人採取行動。

第44條。 - 締約雙方同意雙方使用兩國的邊界河流和運河。如果任何一方在界河上進行水電工程和水利、灌溉工程的過程中,有需要超越中線,應事先徵得對方的同意。

上述邊界水電工程、水利工程、灌溉工程的建設,不得改變邊界線。

...

附:已公布的英文版片段 編輯


PROTOCOL BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNION OF BURMA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA RELATING TO THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES, SIGNED AT PEKING ON 13 OCTOBER 1961.

The Government of the Union of Burma and the Government of the People's Republic of China.

Considering that the Burmese-Chinese Joint Boundary Committee, in pursuance of the provisions of the Boundary Treaty between Burma and China of 1 October 1960 , has successfully completed the task of surveying the boundary line between the two countries and erecting the boundary markers and has thereby clearly demarcated the boundary line between the two countries, and

Being deeply convinced that this will help further consolidate the boundary of peace and friendship between the two countries established on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence,

Have, in accordance with Article X of the Boundary Treaty between Burma and China, signed the present Protocol.

PART 1 General Provisions 編輯

Article 1. - The boundary line between Burma and China, with the exception of its western extremity which is pending final determination, has been surveyed on the spot and demarcated by the two Parties in pursuance of Article VII of the Boundary Treaty between Burma and China. The alignment of the boundary line as surveyed and demarcated by the two Parties is described in more detail in the present Protocol than in the Treaty. Hereafter, the specific alignment of the boundary line between the two countries shall be as provided for in the present Protocol.

Article 2. - Wherever the boundary is to follow a watershed as stipulated in Article VII of the Boundary Treaty between Burma and China, the watershed ridge shall be the boundary line between the two countries. In a few particular sectors of the boundary, the two Parties have specifically demarcated the boundary line with due regard to the actual features of the terrain and the administrative jurisdiction of the two countries.

Article 3. - In some places of the sectors where the boundary is to follow a river course as at the time when the boundary was demarcated in the past, as stipulated in Article VII of the Boundary Treaty between Burma and China, the two Parties have specifically demarcated the boundary line, taking into account the convenience for administrative jurisdiction of the two countries together with the actual features of the terrain.

Article 4. - The boundary rivers between Burma and China having now been regarded as unnavigable rivers, the boundary shall follow the midstream line as stipulated in Article VIII of the Boundary Treaty between Burma and China. Such midstream line is determined by the average high water level of the river.

Article 5. - Islands and sand-bars in the boundary rivers situated on the Chinese side of the midstream line shall belong to China and islands and sand-bars situated on the Burmese side of the midstream line shall belong to Burma. The ownership of islands and sand-bars intersected by the midstream line has been determined through mutual consultation on the basis of fairness and reasonableness.

In case new islands and sand-bars hereafter emerge in the boundary rivers, they shall respectively belong to China or Burma according to their location in relation to the midstream line. The ownership of new islands and sand-bars intersected by the midstream line shall be determined by the two Parties through mutual consultation on the basis of fairness and reasonableness.

Article 6. - The boundary markers erected by the two Parties along the boundary line between the two countries are numbered in serial order from the High Conical Peak northwards and southwards. The High Conical Peak is the common starting point of the northern and southern sections; and the serial numbers from the High Conical Peak northwards are Nos. 1 to 47, while those southwards to the southeastern extremity at the junction of the Nam La and Lantsang (Mekong) River are Nos. 1 to 244.

Each serially numbered boundary marker may consist of one, two or three boundary markers. The principles guiding the erection of one, two or three boundary markers bearing one serial number are as follows:

(1) Wherever a boundary marker is located on the boundary line running on land, only a single boundary marker is erected.
(2) Wherever the boundary line running on land meets a boundary river which it follows or wherever the boundary line running along a boundary river leaves the river and runs onto land, either one marker may be erected on the bank where it is intersected by the boundary line or two markers bearing the same serial number may be erected, one on each bank of the river.
(3) Wherever a boundary marker is located on the boundary line which follows a river, two markers bearing the same serial number may be erected, one on each bank of the river.
(4) Wherever a boundary marker is located at the junction of a boundary river and a non-boundary river, two markers bearing the same serial number may be erected, one on each bank of the boundary river.
(5) Wherever a boundary marker is located at the junction of two boundary rivers, three markers bearing the same serial number may be erected, one on each bank of the junction of the rivers. In certain cases, however, only two markers bearing the same serial number may be erected, one on each bank of one of the boundary rivers.

...

Article 42. - The Contracting Parties shall, as far as possible, prevent the boundary rivers from changing their courses. Neither Party shall purposely change the course of any boundary river.

In order to prevent the boundary rivers from changing their courses, the Contracting Parties may jointly adopt such measures as they deem necessary; either Party may also, without affecting the interests of the other Party, adopt similar measures separately in its own territory after notifying the other Party; but if the other Party suffers any loss therefrom, suitable compensation shall be made.

In case a boundary river changes its course, necessary measures shall be taken by the two Parties jointly or, after mutual consultation, by one of the Parties separately, to restore the boundary river to its original course.

In case a boundary river cannot be restored to its original course owing to natural causes, this sector of the boundary, in accordance with the provisions of Article VIII of the Boundary Treaty between Burma and China, shall remain unchanged in the absence of other agreements between the two Parties.

Article 43. - Each Contracting Party shall, according to the seriousness of each case, take action against those who wilfully remove, damage or destroy any boundary-marking objects or purposely change the course of any boundary river.

Article 44. - The Contracting Parties agree that the boundary rivers and canals between the two countries shall be used by both Parties. In case either Party in the course of putting up hydro-projects and water conservancy and irrigation works on the boundary river finds it necessary to go beyond the midstream line, it shall obtain the consent of the other Party in advance.

The use of the boundary water and the putting up of hydro-projects and water conservancy and irrigation works as mentioned above shall not change the alignment of the boundary line.

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注釋 編輯

  1. 此協議書全文及所附的大分辨率地圖未對外公布,目前僅可看到部分英文版章節。此處中文非原文,系由英文轉譯而來。